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Afforestation for sustainable and greener Nepal

4:16 pm, July 7, 2021

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Prajwal Badalhttps://informnepal.com
Prajwal Badal the editor of Inform Nepal. He is also a researcher, community development worker, and advocate.
Abstract

The study explores and unravels the prevailing deforestation pattern, which has continuously been detrimental to greenery and the environment. It also aims to explain the significant importance of greener Nepal to many people as much as is achievable through the afforestation program. The paper focuses on environmental sustainability, aiming to benefit both present and future generations from natural resources. The study covers a vast area, including afforestation, reforestation, ecosystem conservation, and management and as the whole greenery. The report writing was primarily based on secondary sources of data, including journal articles and academic books. Likewise, case studies of different organizations were looked upon. The case studies of organizations showed how they identified the obstacles like deforestation, environmental degradation and contributed to tackling those problems ensuring ecological preservation and greenery. These case studies have taught how even a single tree can play a significant role in environmental conservation and how an individual can contribute to transforming the barren hill into a green and scenic landscape. There have been many tiresome efforts by numerous individuals and organizations to transform Nepal into a sustainable and greener country. However, the efforts have not been as fruitful as planned. Many hardships, strikes, protests, and deeply rooted corruption have shaken the steps to preserve the greenery. The case studies provided have encouraged every one of us to continuously work hand in hand with great vigor and energy to achieve a greener Nepal overcoming those challenges. This paper collectively motivates other researchers, social workers, and concerned authorities to pave a way towards further research or contributions to achieving a target of a greener and sustainable environment in every nooks and corner of the country.

Acronyms

FAO – Food and Agricultural Organization

FECOFUN – The Federation of Community Forestry Users Nepal

Background

Forests are rightly regarded as the lungs of the earth and jewels of our nation. However, development activities like agricultural expansion and other infrastructural development have arisen deforestation. The deforestation rate in Nepal is currently 1.7% which is far higher than the Asian average of 1% and the global average of 1.3%, resulting in climate change and global warming, (FAO, 2020). Likewise, Nepal’s urban population had reached 38.26 % of the total as of the fiscal year 2014-15, according to the Economic Survey Nepal, (Mahat, 2014/2015). Nepal being a predominantly agricultural country having 66% of people directly involved in agriculture, (FAO Departments and Offices, 2020), is weakened by rapid urbanization and deforestation. However, the government still lacks concrete strategies, clear policies, and action plans. Environmental sustainability is the key factor needed to be put into action. The UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 has even endorsed the concepts of sustainable development. The conference emphasized that human beings can lead a healthy, productive, and happy life provided that they live in harmony with nature ensuring environmental conservation while promoting affordable economic development, (National Planning Commission, 2017).

This fosters eco-friendly development, mitigation of natural resource scarcities, and decreased environmental crisis like soil erosion, landslides. In an agricultural country like Nepal, a green economy can be considered as one of the means to achieve sustainability. Nepal currently has 20 protected areas consisting of 12 national parks, six conservation areas, one hunting, and wildlife reserve each, (Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, 2020). These are the assets of Nepal, and development must be in alignment with the environment and nature. For instance, the Supreme Court of Nepal halted the construction of Nijgadh International Airport in province no.2 after PIL was filed. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) stated that more than 2 million trees are expected to cut down, preventing 22,500 tons of carbon from being absorbed each year. EIA also warned the act might lead to severe flooding in Birgunj, Gadhimai, Gaur, and Kalaiya, (Sah, 2019). The verdict of the Supreme Court was in compassion towards environmental sustainability.

Purpose

The primary purpose of this report is to explain the most significant advantages of greener Nepal through afforestation programs and the development it brings with the preservation and conservation of its greenery along with the optimum use of natural resources in the environment. In other words, this report will make an effort to encourage afforestation. It aims to provide information to restore the areas that have been destroyed along with sustainable agriculture, forestry, protection of biodiversity, and safeguarding the earth’s long-term carrying capacity by mainly targeting the present generation to be thoroughly benefitted from available resources.

Objectives

We prepared this research with various objectives on our mind which are as follow.

1. To study how afforestation leads to a sustainable and greener environment.

2. To learn how an individual or organization can selflessly contribute to solving existing environmental problems that pave a way towards sustainable development.

3.To understand existing problems halting afforestation programs, and how to tackle them to accomplish sustainable and greener Nepal.

4.To know about the organizations working enthusiastically in the field of environment and how they achieve their environmental goals.

Methods of the Study

The study method will be primarily based on secondary sources of data, including journal articles, reviews, and academic books and environment-related case studies about eco-friendly inventions and technologies. Then the information gathered from FAO, Economic Survey of Nepal, UN Conference on Environment and Development will be used for further research. Likewise, articles available on the Department of National Parks and Conservation Areas Nepal will be analyzed. Given the ongoing pandemic situation and restrictions for mobility, this report will solely be based on secondary sources of data which will also include seminars about sustainable development, environmental and biodiversity conservation, use of natural renewable sources along with an online study of various research reports and websites.

Scope of the study

The scope of the research covers vast areas like reforestation programs, ecosystem conservation, and management, fair and sustainable use of local and natural resources. It includes awareness-raising campaigns about the necessity of afforestation and the hazardous impacts of deforestation. The scope also involves environmentally friendly activities in mostly rural areas like organic farming, stress management in crops, and soil regeneration. Similarly, the scope comprises farmers’ training on agricultural and nutrition-related topics on subsistence and traditional farming methods, which further leads to the improvement in agronomic activities and, eventually, greenery in the landscape of the country.

Literature Review

Sustainable and greener Nepal is a broad term that reflects the necessity and importance of greenery/afforestation which safeguards environmental sustainability along with maintenance of biodiversity and ecological balances. Greenery is often regarded worldwide as the green innovation featuring green cities, green energies, and green jobs which signify sustainable development. The Greener concept in Nepal and abroad is an overarching and ambitious concept to achieve environment enhancement via sustainable development.

Our collective efforts for greener Nepal maintaining environmental sustainability define our relationship with the environment and the resources we control. We humans solely rely on biodiversity to survive. They are not just a source of food but contribute as a multifaceted resource in every environmental, economic, social, and cultural aspect. They provide a wide range of climate regulation, carbon sequestration, habitat, and recreational purposes. It is our moral obligation and duty to conserve the environment. We are accountable to and responsible for any environmental hazards. Life on earth would simply cease to exist or will be on the verge of extinction without biodiversity.

Forests are home to 80% of terrestrial biodiversity, containing a wide array of trees, plants, animals, and microbes, (World Bank, 2013). But unfortunately, deforestation alone is the second leading cause of climate change (FAO, 2018). Many initiatives and efforts have been started worldwide for contributing to a green environment. Trillion tree campaign is one of the green campaigns aiming to plant one trillion trees globally which has nearly planted 14 billion trees so far. The campaign was initiated by Wangari Maathai (a Nobel peace prize awardee) as a Billion Tree Campaign, (Plant for planet, 2020) which focused on planting trees to replenish the environment. Furthermore, many countries have initiated nationwide afforestation and environmental conservation programs. For instance, One Tree Matters in Australia, Conserve Natural Forests in Thailand, Amazonia Rioterra in Brazil, Eden projects in Madagascar, Trees for Tribal in India, and many more, (BBC, 2019). These programs are mainly focused on reforestation, flora and fauna conservation, public awareness, sustainable development. Similarly, social media influencers and YouTube personalities Jimmy Donaldson and Mark Rober had initiated an ambitious project of planting 20 million trees by 2022, (BBC, 2019). Likewise, planting projects from over 20 countries have come together to deliver a massive boost to the world’s reforestation efforts, (UN Environment Program, 2019) Furthermore, there have been numerous efforts from the individual to the country level to mitigate the problems of deforestation and climate change. For instance, millions of people protested against climate change across 185 countries raising awareness for urgent action to save the planet in 2019, (Rodriguez, 2019).

In the context of Nepal, many organizations are working actively in the field of environment and its conservation. Green Foundation Nepal is one of the vigorously working organizations in the field of an environment to encourage the sustainable management of natural resources by right holders’ groups (local communities, small landholder farmers, and indigenous peoples) for the prosperous financial progress, and to alleviate poverty. The organization has the objective to implement a sustainable forest management plan, establish and support green enterprises, conservation of biodiversity with local mobilization of natural resources, (Nepal, 2014). The organization has worked on the Global Politics of climate change and forest governance. This aimed at understanding global issues of climate change and forest governance at the local and national level, to mitigate the devastating consequences of climate change, (Green Foundation Nepal, 2014). Similarly, The Federation of Community Forestry Users Nepal (FECOFUN) is a formal network of Forest User Groups (FUGs) from all over Nepal aiming for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. The organization has completed various environment- related projects which promote greenery in Nepal. One of the projects is “Hariyo Ban Project I”. This five-year program (2011 to 2016) was financially supported by USAID (approx. 30 million). The program focused on biodiversity conservation, Sustainable Landscape Management, Climate change adaptation, (FECOFUN, 2014). Similarly the second phase of the project“Hariyo Ban Project II” has started in 2016 and will last for 5 years aiming at landscape conservation and reduction in climate change (FECOFUN, 2014).

The organization has also run other projects like the “Transiting to Green Growth: Natural Resources in Nepal (TGG-N) Project”. The project primarily focused on the rational utilization of natural resources to develop the country and promoted scientific methods of agriculture and farming. This four-year project (2014-2018) was entirely sponsored by DANIDA (9 million dollars). Before these, the organization has been involved in the Forest and Farm Facility Program in partnership with FAO, IIED, IUCN, and Agricord. The program aimed to ensure inclusive governance, support farmers, and led ‘Climate Resilient Landscapes and Improved Livelihoods.’ They played key roles in minimizing poverty and significantly contributed to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to fight climate change as part of the Paris agreement. The program also promotes resilient forest and farm producer group’s enterprises for improved livelihoods ensuring that there are inclusive participation and representation of women, minorities, indigenous people, differently able people, and socially backward groups of the community. The program (2018-2022) is currently running in Kavre, Makwanpur, Navalpur, Kapilvastu, and Dang, (FECOFUN, 2020).

In the same way, RIMS Nepal (Resource Identification Management Society Nepal) is a non-profit and non-governmental organization established by experts and activists of the United Mission to Nepal. The organization works relentlessly in biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management, agriculture and food security, climate adaptation (CCA), and disaster risk reduction (DDR). It plays an enormous role in resource management and enhancing the lifestyle of the local people. The organization has completed various projects on the Non-timber Forest Product Program, Building Resilience of Farmers from Climate Change, Multi-Stakeholder Forestry Program (MSFP), Dhading Environment Protection (DEP) Program, and many more, (RIMS Nepal, 2018).

Nepal Agroforestry Foundation is yet another aspiring organization working enthusiastically to contribute to national prosperity and green economic development by improving the living standards of backward and marginalized communities through appropriate help, research, and development. The unique projects of the organization are Tree in a Cup and Fruits of the Garden Project which focused to improve land use through fruits, fodder, multipurpose trees, coffee plantation, organic vegetable farming, home gardening, and sustainable agriculture. This aimed at improving food security and the level of nutrition of marginalized groups of the community. It promoted a sustainable approach to improve quality, safety, and access to food, and enhanced the techniques of permaculture. The project also raised awareness on residents of Kavre on organic farming through radio broadcasts and trained hundreds of people on permaculture and sustainable farming, (NEPAL AGROFORESTY FOUNDATION, 2019).

The National Trust for Nature Conservation directly manages 33 % of total protected areas. The trust works for the conservation of Annapurna, Gaurisankar, and the Manaslu conservation area project. The trust also plays a significant role in managing the central zoo, biodiversity conservation projects, Bardia Conservation Programs, and Suklaphanta conservation programs, (National Trust for Nature Conservation, 2020). Along with national organizations, foreign non-governmental organizations are also working actively for the conservation and promotion of biodiversity in Nepal. WWF in Nepal has an over-arching goal of ‘zero net deforestation and forest degradation in WWF priority places by 2020’. WWF Nepal will adopt three complementary approaches to forest resources: protect, manage and restore, with the overall aim of ensuring conservation of biodiversity and environmental resources at the landscape level, (WWF Nepal, 2020). IUCN in Nepal is working actively to promote biodiversity conservation, environmental justice, and sustainable livelihoods in Nepal. Some of the works of IUCN in Nepal are Developing a Model of Green Municipality (2014-2017), Enhancing Livelihoods & Food Security from Agroforestry and Community Forestry (EnLifT) (2013 2018), Wetlands for Our Future (2015- 2016), (IUCN Nepal, 2020).

Apart from organizations, there have been various efforts from individuals or groups of people for environmental sustainability. Kopila Valley School in Surkhet is an exemplary model of environmental sustainability for greener Nepal. The school promotes a green environment and is made up of proper mobilization of local resources and labor. The wall is reinforced with steel and concrete for seismic resistance and built-in local architecture. The school is made up of two stored, gabled roofs and breezy stairwells in a traditional style. Promoting green technology, the school has concentrated solar panels used as sunroof along with power cookers in the kitchen which would replace Rs: 60000 worth of LPG. The roof is harvested into 3000litre of water storage for rainwater harvesting and any black water wastage is used as compost manure, (Teo, 2019).

Despite tireless efforts from activists, NGOs/INGOs, and government, prosperous and greener growth is yet to be achieved. Nepal ranks 113th position in transparency in 180 countries, (Transparency International, 2019). This rampant corruption and misuse of power often causes poor quality services and results in low productivity. Lack of commitment, uninteresting working atmosphere, political instability, and public obstruction adds fuel to the fire. Similarly, one of the challenging jobs is to educate locals about the necessity of greenery and encourage them to preserve it. The unavailability of skilled manpower and sound knowledge about the geography of the country makes it even more challenging to transform the country into a green economy. Since the job is time-consuming and requires sheer determination, it becomes difficult to plan and harder to execute.

Methodology

We will be selecting three case studies from three different organizations. At first, we chose five case studies (Hariyo Ban Projects I and II, One Day One Tree Reforestation Project, Greening Tarkeshwor- A Model Community for Nepal, Reforestation in Nepal by Rachhya Kayastha, Afforestation Project in Nuwakot) from five organizations (Federations of Community Forests Users Nepal, The Partners Nepal, LVDI International, Eden Restoration Project, Emergency Aid Nepal) respectively. Among them, we selected three case studies (One Day One Tree Reforestation Project, Greening Tarkeshwor- A Model Community for Nepal, Reforestation in Nepal by Rachhya Kayastha) that solely focused on the necessity of greenery and had an impactful impression on society.

In this report, case studies will be strictly related to the organizations that have played a significant role in afforestation, reforestation, and environmental conservation aiming at sustainable development and greenery. The case study chosen will also focus on and influence young generations to conserve and preserve greenery. While preparing the report, the lockdown due to the ongoing pandemic has disrupted every possible way of collecting primary data. It is almost impossible to have face-to-face interaction for data collection through interviews, focus groups, and fieldwork. The study method will be primarily based on secondary sources of data, including journal articles, reviews, videos and academic books, environment-related books about eco-friendly inventions and technologies. Similarly, case studies of different organizations working in my field of interest will be looked upon. We will be entirely using the secondary method of data for conducting my research. We will be using these secondary data analyzed by authentic sources in the report.

Case Studies:

We firstly reviewed five case studies from five different organizations and chose three case studies that fit our report. The case studies are provided below:

1.      Partners Nepal (One Day One Tree Reforestation Project)

About:

The Partners Nepal (TPN) is a non-profit making organization established in 2012 by individuals with long-term experience working in mountain communities in different fields, such as protected area management, community forest management, afforestation and reforestation activities. The organization is working tirelessly for afforestation in the hilly and Himalayan region in the fragile alpine ecosystem.

Partners Nepal has completed One Day One Tree Project in Cheskam Village, Khunde community (2019-2020), and Phortse Village (2017-2018) with the help of foreign and local aid. The project has launched afforestation programs in their respective villages funded by The Partners Nepal, Sir Edmund Hillary Stiftung Deutschland, NepalHilfe-Tirol, and the individuals of conservation interest. The main objectives of the One Day One Tree Reforestation project are community forest management, reforestation and afforestation programs, conservation and restoration of fragile alpine ecosystems, and protected area management. As a whole, the project is particularly focused on afforestation programmes aiming for environmental sustainability.

Works and Impacts on society:
  • The Cheskam Village lies within Makalu Barun National Park and Buffer zone. The project has played a significant role in the preservation and conservation of this national park aiming for greenery in the Himalayas of the Cheskam Village.
  • The project has encouraged local people of Cheskam village to plant new seeds with full public participation and preserve the national park.
  • Similarly, One Day One Tree project launched in the Khunde community was able to fulfil the desires of the community for protection and restoration of the areas that were previously destroyed by the flood originated from the Himalayas. The natural beauty disturbed by the annual flooding was able to regenerate to its natural and greener environment with the aid of the project.
  • The project had planted approximately 1100 seedings of four different species such as Juniper, fir, rhododendron, and birch in Khunde. The plantation took place with public participation and local use of the natural resource.
  • The project was also launched in Phortse Village to protect the fragile alpine ecosystems. Volunteers of the projects were sincerely vigilant towards overgrazing and deforestation.
  • The project in Phortse Village has planted approximately 600 seedlings of different species. The project also had trained locals to carry out plantations effectively.
  • Before the One Tree Plantation project, the places like Phortse Village, Cheskam village, and Khunde village had a huge deforestation problem and overgrazing. However, after the completion of the project much progress had been made in those villages.

The project was successfully implemented in all three Villages and left a remarkable impact on society. The project encouraged local people to initiate development activities in their locality and taught the necessity of public participation to achieve sustainable development and greenery, (The Partners Nepal).

2.  Restoration in Nepal by Eden Restoration Project

About:

Eden Restoration Project is one of the biggest projects launched for ecological conservation, afforestation, across the world. It has been actively working in underdeveloped and developing countries. With the motto of planting trees and saving lives, the project has been initiated in Nepal as well. Nepal is one of the eight countries where the Eden Restoration Project is active. Restoration in Nepal by the Eden Restoration project is one of the huge tree plantation campaigns in Nepal. Beginning in 2015, Eden has been actively working in three different regions across the country, including a partnership with Chitwan National Park, a World Heritage Site in Nepal. By partnering with the National Park system, Eden Projects is serving to conserve and create a reforested buffer zone that is essential to protect animal habitats and ecology. Rachhya Kayastha is the international assistant director of the Eden Restoration Project for Nepal. Rachhya remembers when she was young there used to be a thick pine forest near the

city, but eventually deforestation took place damaging the beautiful nature. According to her, about 70% of trees across the country have been cut in the long run which is a very distressing thing to an agricultural country, (Eden Restoration Project, 2017).

Similarly, Eden Restoration is also involved in ‘ Terai Forest Restoration Project’ with the help of another similar organization called ‘Treesisters’. This project aimed to empower and engage local communities to regrow and protect the vibrant lowland tropical forests in the Terai region. Eden Reforestation Projects has been working in Nepal for five short years and has exhibited the “most rapid tree growth in any of our project nations.”

Works and Impacts on society:

The project empathizes the importance of a single tree in making a greener and safer environment. The project encourages public participation of local people especially women who are bound to the four walls of the kitchen. The project has made a remarkable contribution to Nepal towards maintaining a greener and sustainable environment. Within a short span of 4 years, the project has already reforested many deforested areas. The project has managed to plant more than 4 million trees so far.

One of Eden’s leaders in Chitwan, Nepal, shared that natural disasters such as floods, droughts, and fires, animals leaving in search of food, water, and shelter have substantially lowered due to the afforestation program led by Eden Restoration Project. Before the Eden Restoration Project, the deforestation rate in Jhapa was huge and the number of wildlife was low. Eden Project is currently funding the reforestation of a total area of 51 hectares (equivalent to 71 football fields) spread across 2 districts: Central Nepal (Rautahat) and Southeastern Nepal (Jhapa) which are located at the foothills of the Himalayas, along the Indian border After the project, deforestation rate was significantly lower and the number of wildlife grew at a pleasing rate. Eden’s employees are seeing signs of wildlife returning to the once barren land. Rows of elephant tracks have been spotted near and within Eden’s planting sites in Jhapa, Nepal.

Moreover, the project has also played a key role in Nawalparasi district by associating with the Just One Tree project. Before the project, Nawalparasi was highly prone to landslides, the trees planted in this project have helped anchor the soil and the landslides have significantly lowered protecting the villages from many environmental disasters. Similarly, the project has educated many youths about the necessity of community forests and provided the local villagers’ meaningful employment and impactful economical gains. The project has left no stone unturned to bring back healthy, diverse, and native forests. It has encouraged locals to improve local farming and agricultural productivity.

3.   Hariyo Ban Project I and II by Federations of Community Forests Users Nepal

About:

Federations of Community Forests Users Nepal (FECOFUN) is a formal network of Forest User Groups (FUGs) from all over Nepal. FECOFUN arose from the idea that forest users from all parts of the country should be connected to strengthen the role of users in policy-making processes. Since its establishment in July 1995 FECOFUN has grown up into a social movement organization with about 8.5 million people represented all of whom are forest users. It is a national federation of forest users across Nepal keen to promote and protect users’ rights, (FECOFUN, 2020). One of the ambitious projects strictly based on afforestation and reforestation led by FECOFUN is Hariyo Ban Project.

Hariyo Ban Project was launched in Nepal for the betterment of nature and natural resources aiming for a sustainable and greener environment. The Hariyo Ban Project is completed in two phases. The first project was Hariyo Ban I. This five-year project (2011-2016), (Federations of Community Forests User Nepal, n.d.) was primarily funded by USAID. As the name suggests, the project emphasizes the importance of greenery and intends to preserve biodiversity. The project is predominantly focused on afforestation and reforestation programs, along with ecological conservation. Similarly, after the completion of Hariyo Ban Project I, the second phase of the Program (Hariyo Ban II) started in July 2016 and will run for another five years. This second phase of the program is concerned about the afforestation program, raising awareness about the necessity of greenery, biodiversity conservation such as unsustainable harvesting of forest products, minimizing forests fire, as well as other important emerging issues which were not previously addressed adequately.

Works and Impacts on society:
  • The Hariyo Ban Project was initially initiated in 11 districts (Kanchanpur, Kailali, Bardiya, Banke, Dang, Chitwan, Nawalparasi, Kaski, Tanahu, Lamjung, and Gorkha). The project had empowered local people in conserving forest from illegal forest fires or deforestation and preserving wildlife from poaching, human-wildlife conflict, habitat loss. The project had collectively supported threatened and endangered species and protected ecological and sustainable forest resources.
  • The project also played a vital role in sustainable landscape management of TAL (Terai Arc Landscape) and CHAL (Chitwan- Annapurna Landscape). It includes focal species preservation and habitat management which directly leads to a greener environment.
  • The project has also introduced governance for forest management. Community-based forest management was improved through stewardship and promotion of equitable and transparent processes in local community groups. This empowered local people and uplift their livelihood.
  • Policies for REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) and other forest policies were strengthened, formulated, endorsed and executed. This strictly led discouragement towards deforestation and paved a way towards afforestation.
  • Forest loss and degradation were visible in Seti and Marsyangdi sub-basins, Churia range and TAL. After the project, the deforestation rate was notably lower and forest restoration had taken place.
  • The mobilization of local natural resources along with public participation has further led to sustainable development.
  • The project had played a noteworthy role to ensure greenery in the hills and landscapes across the country through linkage with other donor-funded programs and private sector engagement.
  • The project had practised inclusiveness in community forest development by indulging indigenous people, poor, Dalit, Janajatis, Madhesi, different ethnic groups, disadvantaged groups, ex kamaiyas, and including every helping hand which led remarkable contribution to the society. The project made local people acknowledge the importance of afforestation and motivated them to contribute towards a greener and sustainable environment.
Findings

This report writing started after we learned about the deforestation status of the country and how it had jeopardized the ecological balances. Deforestation results in huge negative impacts for a predominantly agricultural-dependent country like Nepal, where forests are rightly regarded as the nation’s wealth. The loss of trees and other vegetation can result in climate change, high carbon emission, soil erosion, lower crop yielding, flooding, landslide, and many more. After finding out the country’s deforestation rate is 1.7%, which is far higher than the Asian and overall global average, deforestation pattern was researched throughout the country, and shockingly about 70% of the total forests had been cut throughout history. We realized it is a burning issue that needs to be addressed resolved quickly. These are the major issues and existing problems halting afforestation.

In the course of the research, it is found that afforestation programs result in eco-friendly development and preservation of greenery along with the public participation and optimum use of natural resources. It was also found that afforestation leads to a sustainable and greener environment analyzing all those case studies. From the case studies, it is clear that the places with afforestation and reforestation will have a significant drop in landslides, floods, and soil erosion. The examples of Jhapa grasslands, Chitwan and Nawalparasi’s biodiversity says so from Eden Restoration Project. Similarly, the examples of Cheskam Village, Phortse Village, and Khunde community illustrate the importance of greenery. Furthermore, the instance from FECOFUN says the same. The data from those areas provide that ecological balance is seen after the afforestation project.

In the same way, it was found out that sustainable agriculture and biodiversity protection will safeguard the carrying capacity of the earth, causing present and future generations to be thoroughly benefited from it. This led me to further research about afforestation campaigns and programs across the globe. Many international organizations like One Billion Tree Project, One Tree Matters in Australia, Conserve Natural Forests in Thailand, Amazonia, Rioterra in Brazil, Eden projects in Madagascar, Trees for Tribal in India, and many more are operating across the world. These projects were found to be extremely helpful to tackle the unfortunate trend of deforestation. Many countries worldwide have criminalized deforestation, forest fires, and illegal logging and have strong laws for the conservation of natural biodiversity. Many public figures and youths across the globe have realized the importance of reforestation and afforestation. They are often seen conveying the message to the world about the necessity of preserving greenery.

In the context of Nepal, there have been few but notable contributions from individual, group, local, and national level governments to mitigate the negative impacts of deforestation lately. Many Nepalese activists had been seen advocating for the preservation of greenery. Students are also seen being concerned about the hazardous effect of deforestation on people’s life. Organizations like Green Foundation Nepal, Federations of Community Users Forests Nepal, Resource Identification Management Society Nepal, Nepal Agroforestry Foundation, are found to be working selflessly and tirelessly to achieve their common goal of a greener Nepal and sustainable environment. From the various researched case studies of projects initiated by different organizations like Partners Nepal (One Day One Tree Reforestation Project), Eden Restoration Project, etc., it was found out that the projects have helped transform the country into a greener nation to some extent with the help of local people and foreign investment as well. Such organizations have been selflessly contributing to solving existing environmental problems that pave a way towards sustainable development.

Thoroughly analyzing those case studies, it is found that aiming for environmental sustainability and working continuously is even more complicated than it seems. Those activists have been seen facing numerous problems: financial shortcomings, protest, and disturbance by local people in development activities or hardships due to the unstable government or inefficient government plans and policies. Furthermore, widespread corruption has weakened progress as Nepal is one of the countries with the highest corruption rates according to Transparency International. A significant finding of the research is that there have been many efforts to achieve sustainable and greener Nepal’s goal. Likewise, many helping hands have offered help to boost the goal. Despite these vigorous efforts, it is still an inadequate effort to completely change the country into a green economy with green cities and jobs.

The research, therefore, indicates many organizations are working in this field, and anyone can contribute from their side to mitigate the problems of deforestation. There have been various efforts to minimize deforestation and encourage afforestation. The research also provides the importance of greenery in ecological balance and sustaining life on Earth.

Discussion

The outcomes of findings have made us feel the importance of greenery and afforestation. It is clear that deforestation causes enormous ecological imbalances and negatively affects the quality of life. The findings reflect the necessity of environmental conservation. Conservation of the environment not only benefits the present generations but also helps future generations to be entirely benefited from it. The findings also illustrate the ongoing afforestation and reforestation campaign nationwide and throughout the world. Those case studies of organizations working tirelessly in this field signify how greenery and sustainable environment is of utter importance and how one can help to contribute towards the well-being of the environment. The findings reveal many organizations have come forward to conserve the greenery identifying the barriers halting afforestation program. However, we have identified that the widespread corruption, political issues and other threats have persistently disrupted the process that leads to sustainable and greener Nepal. Being a researcher in this project, I genuinely believe these obstacles must be addressed to achieve a prosperous result.

Conclusion

Afforestation for greener and sustainable Nepal is a broad, important and rising topic that I have addressed. Greenery is the wealth of our nation and it is our responsibility to preserve it. Our development activities must be in correspondence with the environment. Any development activities that threaten the beauty of nature and cause ecological imbalances is a sheer waste. The foremost step required is sustainable development without harming the beauty of nature preserving its greenery. Apart from the organizations presented above, many more individuals and

organizations must come forward to shape the country to the greener and sustainable country. It is a responsibility of every individual to contribute a little positive effort to preserve the natural forests and vegetation and assist the afforestation program. Likewise, it is the time for the government and policymakers to come with strong laws for the preservation of nature and implementing it rationally. The collective effort from individuals, groups and governments will surely help see a positive, pragmatic and long-lasting change.

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